For many years Malesci has been actively involved in the cardiovascular field, particularly in the treatment of one of the most important risk factors for vascular disease: high blood pressure.

Arterial hypertension is an increase of blood pressure levels. Blood pressure is the measure of the force exerted by blood pumped from the heart against the walls of the arteries. When the heart contracts and the blood flow passes into the arteries, the highest high blood pressure, called systolic or 'maximal', is recorded; When, between heart beats, the heart fills with blood, the arterial pressure is lower in the arteries, this called diastolic or 'minimal'. Hypertension is when the systolic and / or diastolic values exceed 140 (for maximum) or 90 (for the minimum) mmHg, according to international guidelines.

Patients with high blood pressure usually do not exhibit any symptoms. In some cases a person with hypertension may experience headaches, dizziness, nausea, vision problems, ringing in the ears, facial redness and palpitations. If a patient experiences these symptoms, it is important that they seek medical advice from their doctor or specialist who will evaluate the situation by measuring their blood pressure and investigating further with clinical examinations if necessary.

Furthermore, hypertension, if not adequately treated, increases the risk of stroke, heart attack, angina, kidney failure and other cardiovascular diseases.

Reducing blood pressure through specific medical therapies allows a significant reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality with reduced assistance costs and improved quality of life for the patients being treated. In order to control blood pressure, physician currently have a wide margin of choice among drugs with different strengths and mechanisms of action, which can be used based on the individual characteristics of the patient and any related pathologies, in monotherapy or together with other drugs.

Compliance with medical prescriptions, when the patient is often obliged to take many drugs medications at the same time, has been unanimously recognized as a decisive element for achieving therapeutic efficacy. To this end, formulations that contain more active ingredients in the same tablet and with well diversified dosages, are increasingly used in order to adapt the therapy to the individual patient as much as possible.


Heart failure is caused by the inability of the heart to perform its normal pumping function and to properly supply blood and oxygen to all organs. Patients with heart failure have a number of symptoms, such as dyspnea (shortness of breath), tiredness, flatulence, cough, swollen abdominal pain, loss of appetite, confusion, memory loss.

The natural course of the disease is progressive and the symptoms gradually become more severe until the patient is to undergo cardiac testing. The treatment for heart failure is multidisciplinary and involves various levels of approach. The ultimate goal is to reduce the symptoms in order to improve the quality of life, slow progression of the disease, reduce hospitalization and increase survival.


Harrison's Principles Of Internal Medicine.